The psychoanalyst Freud noted that "Hans had to be told many things that he could not say himself" and that "he had to be presented with thoughts, which he had, so far, shown no signs of possessing". Genital stage The fifth stage of psychosexual development is the genital stage that spans puberty through adult life, and thus represents most of a person's life; its purpose is the psychological detachment and independence from the parents. In the case of too much gratification, the child does not learn that he or she does not control the environment, and that gratification is not always immediate, thereby forming an immature personality. Moreover, after the phallic stage, the girl's psychosexual development includes transferring her primary erogenous zone from the infantile clitoris to the adult vagina. To integrate the female libido sexual desire to psychosexual development, he proposed that girls develop " penis envy ". The libido contains conceptual, Platonic, erotic and sexual components. Contemporary criticism also questions the universality of the Freudian theory of personality Id, Ego, Super-ego discussed in the essay On Narcissism , wherein he said that "it is impossible to suppose that a unity, comparable to the ego can exist in the individual from the very start". Postulates of this Model: In Human Behavior in Global Perspective:
Moreover, his admitting to wanting to procreate with mother was considered proof of the boy's sexual attraction to the opposite-sex parent; he was a heterosexual male. Any neuroses established during the fourth, latent stage, of psychosexual development might derive from the inadequate resolution either of the Oedipus conflict or of the Ego's failure to direct his or her energies towards socially acceptable activities. In response, the German Neo-Freudian psychoanalyst Karen Horney , counter-proposed that girls instead develop " Power envy ", rather than penis envy. In Sex and Repression in Savage Society , Malinowski reported that boys dreamed of feared uncles, not of beloved fathers, thus, power — not sexual jealousy — is the source of Oedipal conflict in such non—Western societies. Contemporary criticism also questions the universality of the Freudian theory of personality Id, Ego, Super-ego discussed in the essay On Narcissism , wherein he said that "it is impossible to suppose that a unity, comparable to the ego can exist in the individual from the very start". Contemporary cultural considerations have questioned the normative presumptions of the Freudian psychodynamic perspective that posits the son—father conflict of the Oedipal complex as universal and essential to human psychologic development. In the case of too much gratification, the child does not learn that he or she does not control the environment, and that gratification is not always immediate, thereby forming an immature personality. The ideal resolution of the id—ego conflict is in the child's adjusting to moderate parental demands that teach the value and importance of physical cleanliness and environmental order, thus producing a self-controlled adult. The id dominates, because neither the ego nor the super ego is yet fully developed, and, since the infant has no personality identity , every action is based upon the pleasure principle. He reported that in the insular matriarchal society of the Trobriand, boys are disciplined by their maternal uncles, not their fathers; impartial, avuncular discipline. Unresolved psychosexual competition for the opposite-sex parent might produce a phallic-stage fixation leading a girl to become a woman who continually strives to dominate men viz. Therefore, the satisfactory parental handling and resolution of the Oedipus complex and of the Electra complex are most important in developing the infantile super-ego, because, by identifying with a parent, the child internalizes morality , thereby, choosing to comply with societal rules, rather than having to reflexively comply in fear of punishment. To facilitate uniting him with his mother, the boy's id wants to kill father as did Oedipus , but the ego, pragmatically based upon the reality principle , knows that the father is the stronger of the two males competing to possess the one female. The style of parenting influences the resolution of the id—ego conflict, which can be either gradual and psychologically uneventful, or which can be sudden and psychologically traumatic. Postulates of this Model: In both sexes, defense mechanisms provide transitory resolutions of the conflict between the drives of the Id and the drives of the Ego. Phallic stage The third stage of psychosexual development is the phallic stage , spanning the ages of three to six years, wherein the child's genitalia are his or her primary erogenous zone. In Human Behavior in Global Perspective: Electra at the Tomb of Agamemnon , by Frederic Leighton , c. The second defense mechanism is Identification , by which the child incorporates, to his or her ego, the personality characteristics of the same-sex parent; in so adapting, the boy diminishes his castration anxiety , because his likeness to father protects him from father's wrath as a rival for mother; by so adapting, the girl facilitates identifying with mother, who understands that, in being females, neither of them possesses a penis, and thus they are not antagonists. The first defense mechanism is repression , the blocking of memories, emotional impulses, and ideas from the conscious mind; yet it does not resolve the Id—Ego conflict. In Analysis of a Phobia in a Five-year-old Boy , the case study of the boy " Little Hans " Herbert Graf, —73 who was afflicted with equinophobia , the relation between Hans's fears - of horses and of father - derived from external factors such as the birth of his sister, and internal factors like the desire of the infantile id to replace father as companion to mother, as well as guilt for enjoying the masturbation normal to a boy of his age. Scientific[ edit ] A usual criticism of the scientific experimental validity of the Freudian psychology theory of human psychosexual development is that Sigmund Freud — was personally fixated upon human sexuality ; therefore, he favored defining human development with a normative theory of psychologic and sexual development. As a result, the girl redirects her desire for sexual union upon father; thus, she progresses towards heterosexual femininity that culminates in bearing a child who replaces the absent penis. In the case of too little gratification, the infant might become passive upon learning that gratification is not forthcoming, despite having produced the gratifying behavior. The libido contains conceptual, Platonic, erotic and sexual components.
Video about genital stage of psychosexual development:
Freud's Psychosexual Stages
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