Epidemiological studies show sex difference in the prevalence in fatty liver disease and suggest that sex hormones may play vital roles in regulating hepatic steatosis. In premenopausal women, E2 is mainly synthesized from cholesterol in the ovaries, with E2 concentration being approximately 5 times higher than that in men, while in postmenopausal women E2 is primarily converted from testosterone by aromatase in peripheral tissues, such as adipose tissue, adrenal glands, bones, vascular endothelium, and smooth muscle [ 14 ], with E2 concentration being similar compared with men http: Any sexual activity that might cause abrasions, cuts, or other trauma is especially risky. The most important biologically relevant forms of estrogens and androgens in humans are estradiol E2 and testosterone, respectively. Estrogen treatment does not increase cholesterol synthesis in liver cells in vitro. This is further demonstrated by investigation of estrogen and estrogen signaling using knockout or transgenic animal models. The genomic effect of androgens is achieved through activation of nuclear receptor, followed by binding to specific DNA known as androgen response element ARE motifs in its target gene [ 93 ]. The chance of transmission with deep kissing is unknown, as no infections have been definitively documented after exposure to infected saliva. In adult rats, basal AR expression in the liver of male rats is about 20 times higher than that in the liver of female rats [ 87 ].
One study of genome-wide analyses demonstrated that the subtle oscillations of estrogens occurring during the estrous cycle are sufficient to influence liver gene expression, and that ERs are involved in the pulsatile synthesis of fatty acids and cholesterol in the liver [ 27 ]. Therefore, whether these people became infected through a sexual act or by another route is unclear. Abstract The liver is one of the most essential organs involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis. Liver steatosis, as seen in the nonalcoholic fatty liver disease NAFLD , is due to the excess of triglyceride TG accumulation within the hepatocytes. Androgens therefore have differential effects in men and women. Although the presence of ARE has not been identified in the promoter region of GLUT2, AR could function as a ligand-activated transcription factor by itself [ ] or bind to some other coactivators [ , ] to increase GLUT2 expression. Hepatic steatosis, a major manifestation of metabolic syndrome, is associated with imbalance between lipid formation and breakdown, glucose production and catabolism, and cholesterol synthesis and secretion. We also deliberate the distinct, important effects of estrogen receptors ERs and androgen receptors ARs on the regulation of liver metabolism. Similarly, replacement of testosterone in castrated male mice also increases insulin receptor mRNA and protein levels in the liver and normalizes castration-induced glucose metabolic impairment [ ]. Interestingly, NAFLD is twice as common in postmenopausal women as in premenopausal women whose estrogen levels are higher than postmenopausal women [ 7 , 11 ], which suggests the protective role of estrogens in NAFLD [ 12 , 13 ]. The sex- and age-dependent AR expression in the liver is programed by a regulatory element in the AR gene promoter [ 89 ]. But the liver -destroying disease can also sometimes be spread through sexual contact. Upregulation of GLUT2 plays a more critical role in regulating glucose export out of, rather than regulating glucose import into, the liver. In males, testosterone works via androgen receptors to increase insulin receptor expression and glycogen synthesis, decrease glucose uptake and lipogenesis, and promote cholesterol storage in the liver. Estrogen treatment does not increase cholesterol synthesis in liver cells in vitro. Therefore, androgen action has great impact on lipid metabolism in female livers. It is not transmitted by holding hands, hugging, or even dry kissing on the lips. From the above studies, ARs are vital in regulating liver lipid homeostasis in both males and females [ ], although hepatic ARs have greater impact in males than in females [ , ]. Although classic nuclear progesterone receptor has not been found in the liver [ 22 , 66 ], progestins can either bind to membrane-bound progesterone receptors [ 67 ] or bind to ARs [ 22 ] in human liver and carry metabolic effects. Increased androgen activity in postmenopausal women correlates with impaired glucose tolerance [ , ]. Male but not female mice in which the aromatase gene has been deleted ArKO develop hepatic steatosis that can be normalized by estrogen treatment [ 49 ]. The liver is the largest visceral organ for maintaining homeostasis in glucose, lipid, and protein. It is noteworthy that the risk for NAFLD in women with PCOS is independent of obesity or insulin resistance but is triggered directly by the hepatotoxic, destructive effect in the liver, indicated by elevated level of alanine aminotransferase [ ]. For example, people in long-standing relationships generally care for one another in times of illness or injury. There is a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome and fatty liver among the elderly population.
Video about liver sex:
Life Lessons: No sex.
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